Remembering and revising history – Smash that statue!

It seems to have become a worldwide phenomenon recently, almost an epidemic – statue-smashing. It used to be just Islamic fundamentalists – the Taliban in Afghanistan, for example – but suddenly everyone seems to be doing it, and I have to tell you, I’m confused.

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Diogenes the Cynic

Of course, religious fanatics are still at it. In Turkey there’s been a spate of attacks on statues of Atatürk, the revered founder of the Republic. And in Sinop on the Black Sea coast, members of a local conservative religious foundation have taken exception to the effigy of an ancient Greek philosopher that stands on the outskirts of town, demanding its removal.

Well it’s easy to dismiss religious fundamentalists as cranks and nutcases, but clearly there are political motives at work too. We’ve been following with interest events in the USA, where violence erupted in Charlottesville, Virginia over some controversial statuary, and the trouble has apparently spread further afield. Hundreds of protestors gathered at the campus of North Carolina University insisting that a statue of a Confederate soldier be torn down. Adding fuel to the fire, a prominent businessman, politician and diplomat, Ray Mabus, called such images “monuments to treason” and insisted that they “must be removed now and forever”.

Meanwhile, a news item from Australia informed me that “there is fury” over a statue of Captain Cook in Sydney’s Hyde Park. In this case, it’s not so much the figurine itself raising hackles, but the inscription on the pedestal claiming that the 18th century British explorer “discovered this territory”. Spokespersons for the indigenous aboriginal community are pointing out that the country wasn’t actually in need of discovering since there had been people living there for 60,000 years or so.

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Carrot adventures

So who’s right, and who’s at fault? Clearly human beings love making graven images – have done since time immemorial – to remember a famous person, to commemorate an event, to show off their wealth or prestige, to worship in place of an invisible deity . . . Most of the time they sit discreetly on their plinths quietly collecting verdigris and bird droppings. Some people think having an enormous model of a carrot (yes, a carrot!) in the New Zealand town of Ohakune is a great idea. Others think it’s pretty stupid, but no one seems to get overcome with blind destructive hatred. Same goes for the giant lobster in Kingston, South Australia. Some local authority in Paris, France, had a 12-metre, 18-tonne bronze thumb erected in their neighbourhood, and I haven’t heard of any complaints. Akşehir in Turkey, birthplace of Nasrddin Hodja, contains several sculptures of the legendary folk philosopher, of which citizens are rather proud.

On the other hand, America’s one-time allies in Afghanistan, the Taliban, attracted much international ire when, a few years ago, they dynamited several large statues of Buddha at the ancient site of Bamiyan. It seems the heresies implicit in the Buddhas overrode any historical value they may have had – at least in the opinion of the dynamiters.

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One of the Buddhas – before the dynamiting

This, then, seems to be the nub of the problem. Carrots, lobsters and thumbs are relatively neutral when it comes to arousing emotional response, either positive or negative. Representations of religion, politics (and sex), however, stir strong feelings. In the years after the Roman Empire officially adopted Christianity, zealots of the new faith journeyed around the temples of earlier ages chiselling off female breasts and male appendages from carvings they considered immoral.

We in the post-modern world like to think of ourselves as more enlightened, but many of us have sympathy for the indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand and elsewhere, who may not have felt the same way about colonial invaders using superior technological might to steal their land and birthright. So what to do about Captain Cook? Remove the statue? Edit the inscription? Is this, as one politician asserted, “Stalinist revision”, or belated sensitive recognition that the ancestors of the aboriginal inhabitants have a valid point?

What about that statue in the Black Sea town? Diogenes the Cynic is believed to have been born there in the early 5th century BCE when it was an Ionian colony, Sinope. Cynical he may have been, but the poor man can hardly be blamed for the tragic events that unfolded a century ago after the Greek military invasion of Anatolia. Feelings still run high in some circles, on both sides of the Aegean, but I suspect current objections to Diogenes represent a small minority of opinion. Attitudes to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, however, are a far more controversial issue in Turkey. For decades a small elite backed by a powerful military controlled the country, fostering a cult-like adoration of the national hero to suppress religious and political opposition to their rule. I read an interesting article the other day in a Turkish newspaper entitled, “Let’s just stop abusing Atatürk.” The writer, Nazlan Ertan, was finding fault with the pseudo-faithful, who decorate their car rear windows with his signature, prefix their Facebook accounts with the initials TC, and claim to know how the great man would vote in elections and referenda if he were around today. And she has a point.

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Robert E Lee in Charlottesville

All of which brings me to the most recent controversy over symbolic statuary – the one currently raging in the United States over the question of whether representations of Confederate heroes or their cause should be permitted in public places. Personally, I don’t care one way of the other, but it seems to me that the issue has become a focus for the lovers and haters of President Donald Trump to vent their hyperactive spleens. And the man does seem to have polarised opinion in the USA in a way that few of his predecessors were able to do. What is clear is that there is still some feeling in Southern states of the old Confederacy that their cause was just, and they were unfairly treated. It seems also certain that the victors, as is generally the case, wrote the history books with their version of the story. Was slavery the only, or even the main issue over which the Civil war was fought? Were those soldiers of the Union really fighting for the rights of black Americans to be treated equally? I have read suggestions that Abe Lincoln himself wasn’t 100% certain about that. Were their opponents in the Confederate army all slave-owners or believers in the system?

More and more of American history is being shown up as mythology and politically motivated censorship. Books such as James Loewen’s Lies My Teacher Told Me, Oliver Stone’s The Untold History of the United States (and its associated TV documentary series) and Stephen Kinzer’s Overthrow, are highlighting serious cracks in the foundations of the American ideal. Maybe we should just pull down all the statues everywhere until we sort the whole business out.

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Life is Strange!

DSCF0206We went to a concert on Friday evening. It was part of a programme presented by the organisers of the 2017 Gümüşlük Classical Music Festival. The venue is an ancient quarry said to be the source of the stone used in the construction of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It’s a spectacular and evocative setting, as you can imagine.

Top musicians from Turkey and Europe come to Gümüşlük every summer to run master classes for promising young musicians, and give a series of concerts for holidaymakers lucky enough to be around at the time.

IMG_2057We enjoyed a programme of music by Saint-Saens, Mendelssohn, Beethoven, Fauré and Brahms played by cellist Dilbağ Tokay and pianist Eren Levendoğlu. It was marvellous – but that’s not actually what I want to tell you about.

We arrived at the venue some 40 minutes early, so we popped over to a restaurant across the road for a coffee to pass the time. As I was waiting to pay the bill, the gentleman ahead of me said “Hello”. Well, I’m accustomed to being identified as a foreigner by Turks wanting to practise their English. “Hello,” I replied. “What’s your name?” The gentleman looked a little taken aback. “My name is Gilles,” he replied. “Ah, are you French?” I asked. Yes he was. We exchanged a few pleasantries during which I told him I’m from New Zealand but I live in Istanbul, and he told me he lives in California. “Nice to meet you, etc etc.”

So we showed our tickets, found our seats in the quarry, and I began leafing through the programme. It soon emerged that my new French acquaintance was actually one of the stars of the festival, a world famous violinist, Gilles Apap! His brief bio informed me that Yehudi Menuhin himself had identified M. Apap as a virtuoso for the 21st century. Sad to say we had missed his one-and-only concert a few days earlier – and I hadn’t even got his autograph.

Well, I checked him out online when we got home. You can visit Gilles Apap’s website here. Not only is he an accomplished classical violinist, his repertoire extends to gypsy music and American folk. As small compensation for my ignorance, I purchased an album from iTunes, Gypsy Tunes. You can listen to a sample here:

Life is strange!

There’s more to Turkey than camels and beaches

This article appeared in our English language daily, Hürriyet Daily News the other day:

Turkish cuisine seeks place at the table

In a bid to banish stereotypes of late-night greasy fast food, Turkish chefs are trying to burnish their image by showcasing the culinary riches the country has to offer. A new breed of cooks has shaken up the Istanbul food scene with an innovative approach to Turkish cooking, while others are on a mission to show there is more to the nation’s cuisine than the perhaps notorious döner kebab.

maxresdefault-5For many outside the country, Turkish food brings to mind images of pitta bread stuffed with shavings of meat roasted on a vertical spit, usually consumed after a heavy night of drinking.  The döner was brought to Western Europe by the Turkish diaspora, especially those in Germany where additions like salad and mayonnaise have made it a heavier meal than in Turkey. But did you ever try karnıyarık, a dish of split aubergines with a meat filling, or çılbır, poached eggs in garlic yoghurt? Ever heard of tulum, a traditional cheese ripened in a goat’s skin, or a dessert called cezerye, caramelised carrot with coconut?

“Turkish cuisine is largely known abroad through döner and kebab,” said Defne Ertan Tüysüzoğlu, Turkey director of Le Cordon Bleu, an international culinary academy, which started in Paris and now has campuses all over the world.

“Turkish cuisine is not well known,” agreed Aylin Yazıcıoğlu, executive chef at Istanbul’s Nicole Restaurant. “The food that comes to mind when people talk about Turkey is, unfortunately, all bad examples. We see this changing slowly. We’ll do our best to change it.  At Nicole, diners are offered a multicourse tasting menu of local products aimed at showing off the best that Turkish cuisine has to offer.

“I believe that in a world geared toward the ‘local,’ we’ve started to understand the value of our cuisine. We’ve started to realize the value of our products,” said Yazıcoğlu. “In our country, everything is available throughout the four seasons,” she added.

Turkish food, she said, has much to offer and needs to promote its greatest assets, such as olive oil. But to truly change perceptions, more work is required. “I can say there’s been a movement but it would be very strong to talk about a revolution. The conditions are not yet ripe for a revolution,” she said.

Close to traditional French cuisine 

Arnaud De Clercq, who has taught at the Istanbul branch of Le Cordon Bleu for the past two years and has worked in Michelin star restaurants in France, described Turkish cuisine as “very rustic” with its focus on sauces, ragouts and stews. “It is close to the traditional French cuisine: beef bourguignon, veal blanquette, lamb navarin – all this you can find here, but a bit different,” he said.  He singled out Turkish meze, the selection of small dishes served as an appetizer at the start of a meal.


n_113991_1“When the Ottoman Empire expanded, it also spread its cuisine,” he said. “You can find Turkish meze in all regions, in all countries and each country adapted it to its own taste, like in Lebanon, in Syria or in Jordan.”

Turkish chef Serkan Bozkurt from the Chef’s Table Culinary Academy, an Istanbul-based cooking school, said perceptions about Turkish cuisine were changing. Today, he said, Turkish restaurants and cafes were blossoming in Europe, with chains like the bakery Simit Sarayı and the Kahve Dünyası coffee shop opening up in London and other places.

The somewhat limited perception of Turkish food overseas, the cuisine has a wide variety of regional differences, with specialties from the western Aegean differing sharply from those in the eastern Black Sea region. Antakya in the southeast has a rich culinary heritage inspired by Aleppo in Syria, while specialties on the Black Sea include dishes such as muhlama, an unusual fondue made with corn flour, butter and cheese.

In a huge country, which spans 784,000 square kilometres, an area bigger than Germany, Poland and Austria together, the cooking styles are very varied, from the herbs and vegetables used in the Aegean, to the meat-dominated specialties of the east, Bozkurt said. Its cheeses alone are likely to impress; Turkey has dozens of varieties, which differ sharply from region to region, he said.

“I always say if a week-long cheese tour was organized in Turkey with trips to its seven regions, people would get dizzy! Turkish cuisine is not confined to meat and kebab,” he said.

Ethnic Sports and Culture

Dilek and I journeyed across the water to Yenikapı last Friday. I’ve been quite enjoying the reactions of mild shock and confusion when I’ve mentioned this to friends and some of my students.

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1,000 year-old ship found in Yenikapı Metro excavations

Yenikapı means “Newgate” in Turkish – and was in fact a gate in the vast fortified walls that surrounded Constantinople, protecting the city against would-be conquerors for a thousand years. Excavations for the underground Metro station turned up a medieval Byzantine harbour and, according to the Institute of Nautical Archaeology, witnessed one of the world’s largest archaeological digs between 2004 and 2013”.

Experiencing a revival of its historical importance, Yenikapı has become an important transport hub in the burgeoning metropolis that is modern Istanbul. The new station is a junction of three Metro lines: one passing under the Bosporus and linking (if you still hold with that ancient line of thought) the continents of Europe and Asia; another connecting to Atatürk International Airport; and the third carrying commuters to and from the financial/commercial centre of Maslak/Ayazağa. Vehicular and passenger ferries come and go, to and from destinations on the Anatolian shore of the city, and further afield across the Sea of Marmara.

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Yenikapı City Park – opened 2012

More recently a major project has reclaimed a large area from the sea, creating a 58-hectare recreational area including carparks, sports facilities, picnic areas and space for large public gatherings. And it is this last feature that provokes the raised eyebrows and looks of consternation when I mention our visit.

Residents in our neck of the Istanbul woods, on the Anatolian side of the city, are mostly proud of the fact that their local councils are aligned with the CHP – the Republican People’s Party that forms the largest opposition grouping in Turkey’s National Assembly. Many of them refuse to set foot in the Marmaray trains that take tens of thousands daily to and from the European side. The very word Yenikapı conjures up in their minds huge gatherings of bearded men and head-scarved women mindlessly adoring the nation’s President, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, and hell-bent on returning the country to a mythical alcohol-free stone age of compulsory mosque attendance, and women enslaved by the twin evils of motherhood and home-cooking.

etnospor-2017In fact our trip to Yenikapı had no connection to matters political. I had been seeing posters in Metro carriages advertising an Etnospor Festival, and I wanted to check it out. These days I work weekends and have my days off on Thursday and Friday. The advantage of this is that most people are at work, parks are mostly empty, and getting around the city is easy. The downside, on this occasion was that most of the best activities were scheduled for the weekend.

Nevertheless, we saw some pretty interesting stuff. The focus of the festival was competitions in sports popular among the Turkic peoples of Central Asia, many of which have strong followings in Turkey today. Oil wrestling is pretty well-known. Forty large men wearing leather trousers cover themselves all over in olive oil and engage in no-holds-barred (seriously!) hand-to-hand combat until only one is left standing.

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A Seljuk mounted archer executing the “Parthian shot”

Archery is a big one. Two crucial technological developments allowed Turkic nomads to fight their way into Europe, overcoming pretty much everyone who stood in their way: the reflex, or recurved bow, and the stirrup. Whereas in the West, archers on foot used a long bow cut from a single length of wood, their Eastern foes had developed a composite weapon which, despite being much shorter, was also more powerful. That and the stirrups allowed skilled horsemen to adopt a whole new range of tactics that proved highly effective, even up to the early days of firearms.

We had a chat with a couple of craftsmen who were making bows in the traditional way. I was amazed to learn that, in the old days, it could take up to two years to produce one bow! Modern techniques have apparently reduced the time to 18 months – but still! Wow!

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Cirit (djirit) – Javelin-throwing on horseback

What I’d really come to see, however, was cirit (djirit). Some words just don’t translate easily from one language to another. I delight in telling my students that there is one word in modern Turkish that comes from our New Zealand Maori language – Kiwi, of course (but the fruit, not the bird). It’s actually surprising how many words have passed from Turkish into English, and not just yoghurt and shish kebab. But cirit is something else. It was a form of combat where guys on horseback riding at full gallop hurled javelins at each other. These days inanimate targets are generally preferred, but the sight is still impressive.

Apart from the sports, there were various displays of handcrafts. The manufacture and trading of silk was an important business in this part of the world. We were treated to a demonstration of how the incredibly fine filaments of silk from cocoons are twisted to make threads that are then woven into scarves and other items of clothing. A craftsman from the eastern city of Gaziantep sold us a pair of hand-made leather slippers just in time for Mothers’ Day. The leather was soft and supple, hand-stitched, and dyed in a wide range of colours.

So we’re glad we went to Yenikapı. It’s a 15-minute ride on the Marmaray Metro from Kadıköy on the Anatolian side, versus a nightmare of snarled traffic on one of the Bosporus bridges. The engineers who built the tunnel claim it’ll withstand a Force 9 earthquake. I hope I never have to put that claim to the test – but that’s not going to stop me using it.

“The Limits of Westernization” – A book review

We fortunate denizens of the First World may not think about it too much – but there is a dominant culture on Planet Earth. It’s not all about the English language – but that’s a big part of it. It’s not all about the United States of America – but that’s a big part of it too. Clearly science and technology play a major role, as do economics (Wall Street and the Yankee dollar), oil and coffee beans.

The good people at Columbia University, NY, are to be congratulated for publishing a series of books, “Studies in International and Global History” examining “the transnational and global processes that have shaped the contemporary world.” Their aim, they say, is to “transcend the usual area boundaries and address questions of how history can help us understand contemporary problems, including poverty, inequality, power, political violence and accountability beyond the nation state.”

9780231182027It’s a worthy aim – and if Perin Gürel’s book “The Limits of Westernization – A Cultural History of America in Turkey” is representative of the series, in my opinion, Columbia Press is on to a good thing. Gürel is Assistant Professor in the Department of American Studies at the University of Notre Dame, Indiana, USA, an American citizen of Turkish parentage. She is balancing the demands of family and motherhood with a promising academic career, and dedicates this, her first book, to her daughter, Marjane Honey: “May you always keep your love of learning and sense of humor entangled.” Amen! Marjane’s mother seems to be managing, so there is hope for the little one.

In her acknowledgements, Gürel pays generous tribute to a host of academics, friends and family members who she modestly accepts as co-authors of her book, and pre-empts possible criticism by admitting that this work “impetuously pushes the limits of inter/multidisciplinarity”. For me, that is undoubtedly its main strength.

Counting its introduction and postscript, the book’s 200 pages contain six chapters. The essence of Gürel’s thesis relates to the dilemma faced by countries that do not, by birthright, belong to the First World. As the Chinese, Native Americans and the Maori of New Zealand learned, isolating yourself from the dominant culture is not an option. They won’t let you. If you are lucky and sufficiently determined, you may try to find a balance between embracing “modernity”, and preserving the integrity of your native culture. “The Limits of Westernization” discusses aspects of this dilemma using the modern Republic of Turkey as a case study.

Gürel is an academic, writing primarily for her academic peers. Nevertheless, she has managed, at the same time, to produce a work that is meaningful and accessible to the non-specialist lay reader – a commendable achievement!

In her introduction, Gürel outlines the key problem facing Turkey and other developing countries: the siren attraction of modernity, epitomised in the contemporary world by the United States of America, and the fear that the overpowering dominance of that attraction will subvert and destroy the indigenous culture. The leaders/governments of those developing countries attempt to control and direct the process of modernisation/Westernization – while simultaneously, a wild Westernization beyond their control is inevitably taking place.

Chapter One looks at the historical narrative, examining the declining years of the Ottoman Empire and the birth of the modern Republic of Turkey. Gürel discusses the way “history” has been manipulated, in Turkey and the United States, to assist the creation of a national identity. In particular, she focuses on a woman, Halide Edip Adıvar, who seems to exemplify the ambivalence implicit in the emergence of the new Republic.

Chapter Two comes at the issue from a literary angle, and deals with the evolution of the novel in Turkish as writers tried to make sense of the rapidly changing social milieu. The key theme is that allegory was an important aspect of earlier Ottoman literature which exponents of the new genre continued to employ in their attempts to shed light on the seismic changes taking place around them.

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Temel and Fadime feature in many Turkish jokes

In the third chapter, Gürel leaps into the culturally ambiguous realm of humour. In what is perhaps the most perceptive and, for a Western reader, the most entertaining and eye-opening chapter, she gives an overview of the way humour has played a part in reflecting and moulding Turkish attitudes to foreigners over the centuries.

The final chapter deals with issues of sexual identity, in particular contrasting the modern imported concepts of gay-ness/queer-ness, with more traditional attitudes towards sexuality and gender roles. I have to confess, the generation gap kicked in here. I know this is a crucial issue for Millennials. If I were writing the book I might have wound up with a chapter on economics – but there you are.

Gürel’s postscript picks up the “Clash of Civilisations” idea popularised by Samuel Huntington. That writer referred to Turkey as a “torn country” – a disparaging term suggesting that Turkey was “fickle” and unable to decide if it wanted to be East or West. Gürel makes the point that “Turkey was never formally colonised”, and consequently had more room to manoeuvre in the process of modernisation. Nevertheless, she notes that, as the “War on Terror” has moved to the forefront of Western politics, Turkey has suffered from a wilful ignorance – a growing belief in Western countries that Turkey cannot be understood, therefore it is useless to try. “That way,” as Shakespeare’s Lear observed, “madness lies.” Full marks to Perin Gürel for showing us another road.

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The Limits of Westernization – A Cultural History of America in Turkey

Perin E Gürel

Columbia University Press (May 30, 2017)

279 pages

Bob Dylan : The Nobel Prize, One Too Many Mornings, The Albert Hall & Me!

Nothing much to do with Turkey – but internationally relevant! Thanks Thom!

The Immortal Jukebox

In honour of Bob Dylan being selected as the 2016 Nobel Laureate for Literature I am Reblogging one of the very first Immortal Jukebox posts which combines a tribute to Bob with a review of his 2013 Albert Hall concert in London.

Some may argue that as a songwriter/performer Bob does not qualify for the Literature Award.

Frankly, I regard such views as unforgivably petty and deeply wrong headed.

I can think of no figure in post World War 2 global culture more worthy of a Nobel Prize!

To add to the review below which had no soundtrack here’s my all time favourite Bob Dylan song in a bravura performance from the 1966 tour soon to be immortalised in a 36 CD set!

No one in the field of popular music has ever written as well as Bob Dylan and no one has performed and sung with such inimitable power.

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Common rhythms and songs unite Greeks and Turks

n_101555_1I’m passing on this article that appeared in my local English language paper today:

Though often at odds in the past, Greece and Turkey share a bond revealed not only in food or language but also in music celebrated on both sides of the Aegean Sea.

Turks and Greeks have preserved many similarities when it comes to music, from style to instruments and lyrics.

Cooperation between Turkish and Greek singers has been a stalwart and singers and musicians from both countries are known on both sides of the Aegean Sea.

Ömer Faruk Tekbilek, a Turkish multi-instrumentalist and composer who has worked with Greek musicians in the past, performed in Athens in June while a concert on the island of Lesbos showcased dervishes of the Mevlevi Order of Konya.        

Asia Minor and Istanbul music – the kind played by motley bands  featuring violins, lyres, and other stringed instruments such as baglamas, outis, saz, santouris, bouzoukis and clarinets – are especially prevalent in both countries. 

“The songs found in both musical traditions mainly come from the region of Marmara and they are popular folk songs with lyrics in both languages, some of which were recorded in Greece from the late 1920s until the Second World War,” according to Nikos Andrikos, from the musicology department of Ionian University and research associate at the Technological Educational Institute of Traditional Music in Arta.

Read the whole article.